Saturday, March 20, 2010

Mondonville: 6 Sonates "En Symphonies" Op.3 (Les Muisciens Du Louvre / Marc Minkowski)

Jean-Joseph Cassanéa de Mondonville(蒙東維爾)(1711-1772)是法國巴洛克晚期的作曲家,在世的時候,和拉摩(Rameau)一樣,是當時十八世紀法國音樂 的重要人物之一。1731,他搬到巴黎後,1733出版了他第一部作品一的小提琴奏鳴曲,1734就進了當時「聖靈音樂會」(Concert Spirituel)樂團的小提琴手。Concert Spirituel是當時一系列的公眾音樂會,目的在將不同的音樂(當然以法國音樂為主)推廣至宮廷以外的人。參加音樂會的人,多半為比較有錢的中產階級和地位較低的貴族。


他的表現,被當時路易十五的情婦Madame de Pompadour(龐巴度夫人)所賞識,日後在金錢上贊助他。在法國音樂界中,Mondonville創有多首Grand Motet(大聖歌), 並寫有幾部較為輕鬆的芭蕾歌劇(opera ballet)。1755年,他接任Concert Spirituel的總監,時常公演當時法國作曲家們的新曲子。資料顯示,他的曲子是在Concert Spirituel音樂會中,最受歡迎,被演奏次數最多的作曲家。還有,當時法國主流音樂圈裡吵得相當兇的話題,就是倒底支持義大利式還是法國式歌劇 (Querelle des Bouffons)。Mondonville和Rameau代表性的法國式歌劇,無庸置疑,都被拿來悍衛法國特有的歌劇風格。

器 樂曲中,最具創意的,應該是他作品三的曲子,這張CD的主角。當初1734的原始標題為Pièces de clavecin en sonates avec accompagnement de violon,也就是「帶有小提琴伴奏的大鍵琴奏鳴曲作品」。言下之意,就是這些曲子,光是大鍵琴彈奏即可,小提琴是配襯的角色。但事實上,仔細聽,二樂 器的比重其實剛剛好,感覺像是一般的二重奏。他的作品三出版後,廣受好評,出版的量更是超乎他自己所預期的。在法國音樂圈,也捲起了創作Pièces de clavecin的新風潮。Rameau在1741所出版的Pièces de clavecin en concerts,也算是現今這種曲式最有名的代表,便是從Mondonville的這六首奏鳴曲中得到靈感的。

這 張CD收錄的版本,並不是當初1734的小提琴與大鍵琴版。在十五年之後,Mondonville將這六首奏鳴曲親自改編成為室內樂版,有些在 Concert Spirituel的音樂會上都有表演到。不過,這個室內樂版,並沒有被出版,只留有手稿。為因應當時開始流行的新交響曲形式,Mondonville甚 至可能還進一步將它們譜成管絃版。這些Sonates en Symphonies,採用簡單的快-慢-快 三樂章形式,慢樂章多半為如歌般的詠嘆調(Aria),而第三樂章則是「很沒有舞曲風」的吉格(Gigue)舞曲。我在猜想,雖然旋律和形式上以法式為 主,但平易近人的義大利風慢慢被整個歐洲所採用,連法國也不能幸免。因此,Mondonville在他的曲子中加入義大利風的特質,說不定是來獲得法國廣 大聽眾的接受。

Marc Minkowski的羅浮宮合奏團(Les Musiciens du Loure)演奏的版本,是陣容更龐大的管絃版,除了強大絃樂部(光第一和第二小提琴加起來,就有十二支),並還加入了一支雙簧管跟低音管。羅浮宮合奏團 的表演,表現出了該有的活力,同時帶有法式的優雅,沒有過度的強勢。再來,他們大陣容,也製造出前古典時期的這種交響曲的音色:濃厚,有層次,有對比。 Minkowski當初和他創立的羅浮宮合奏團,錄制了相當多的法國巴洛克時期比較不為人知的曲子,但多以歌劇,大聖歌等別的聲樂曲見長。這張CD是少數 幾張完全的器樂曲錄音,但可圈可點,聽了大快人心。

Jean-Joseph Cassanéa de Mondonville (1711-1772) was late French Baroque composer.  His music was featured greatly at the Concert Spirituel concerts, which he also eventually directed,  succeeding Pancrace Royer after he died.   He would go on to introduce new French works of the time to the public.  He was considered, along with Rameau, one of the leading French composers of the 18th century.


He was first noticed as being a fine violinist, but he rose through the ranks quickly under the patronage of Madame de Pompadour.  In true French tradition, he composed several grand motets and opera-ballets.  His grand motets and Rameau's operas were among the most accomplished works of the late French Baroque era.  

His first published opus was a set if violin sonatas, followed by a set of trio sonatas.  His op.3, published in 1734 and recorded here, was originally titled "Pièces de clavecin en sonates avec accompagnement de violon."  This really meant that, the pieces could really be played without the violin parts and the harpsichord itself was sufficient.  This set was immensely popular, and some other composers started to follow this trend of composition, most notably that of Rameau's great Pieces de Clavecin en concerts, published in 1741. 

15 years later, Mondonville orchestrated these pieces for the orchestra.  They were never been published, so it only exists in the manuscript form.  The six "sonatas en symphonies" are all three movements of the fast-slow-fast model of the emerging symphonie.  The orchestrated versions indeed have a very rich and symphonic texture for the fast outer movements.  Comparison to the original version of just the harpsichord and the violin, the difference is truly striking.  The slow middle movements are all arias of the singing nature.  Although the style is very French, there is no doubt some Italian influence here, as Italian presence was always very much felt in the French courts.

Marc Minkowski and Les Musiciens du Louvre (which he founded) play these works with vigor but providing a very "French" smoothness.  Because of their relatively large ensemble (12 violins, coming close to Banchini's Ensemble 415 of 14 violins), they produce a good warm sound, while the solo sections provide the more intimate feel.  The Deutsche Grammophon recording quality, as usual, is very high. Marc Minkowski focused on reviving many neglected French Baroque music, many which are operas and other vocal music.  It's nice to see a recording devoted to pure instrumental music, French Baroque that is :)






1 comment:

Paul said...

i have this :D

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