Saturday, February 27, 2010

Domenico Gallo: 12 Trio Sonatas (Parnassi Musici)


Domenico Gallo 這位作曲家,知道這個名字的人,我可以肯定說是相當地少。關於他的生平,音樂的歷史上記載也是不詳。現在大致上知道的是他出生於1730左右的維尼斯,是 位出色的小提琴家。除了寫有大量的宗教音樂之外,也有寫了不少小提琴奏鳴曲和三重奏鳴曲,以及管弦樂序曲(巴洛克式)。


那今天Gallo的名氣到底在哪兒?稍微有點聽現代二十世紀的現代古典樂的人,一定都知道Stravinsky(史特拉汶斯基)這位大師,寫有「火鳥」, 「春之際」,還有「彼得洛希卡」三首重要的現代芭蕾舞音樂。不過很多人卻可能不知道他在1920左右,在上述寫完那三首偉大芭蕾舞之後,又寫了一首 Pulcinella的芭蕾舞。同樣是由俄羅斯芭蕾(Ballet Russe)的總監狄亞格列夫(Serge Diaghilev)委託,不過主題Pulcinella是十八世紀的Commedia dell'arte(即興喜劇)的角色,所以規定Stravinsky一定要用十八世紀Pergolesi的巴洛克音樂做為主題。

Stravinsky 起初非常不願意,因為他剛開始幾乎有點看不起巴洛克時期的音樂。但Diaghilev將譜硬塞給Stravinsky,讓他不看也不行。這一看,他對之前 的看法完全改觀。他自己甚至說了「我愛上了它們。」不過,當時音樂的考據做得並不仔細。今天被證實,當時Diaghilev遞給Stravinsky的眾 多曲子裡,有一半以上根本不是Pergolesi所寫的。後來完成的Pulcinella裡,被大量採用的旋律,今天經過詳細的研究,被發現是 Domenico Gallo這位作曲家的三重奏鳴曲。Pulcinella二十段裡,其中有七段的旋律出自張CD十二首奏鳴曲的六首,可知Stravinsky多欣賞 Gallo的音樂。Pulcinella這首芭蕾,是Stravinsky晚期新古典風(Neoclassical)裡的第一首曲子,也捲起二十世紀初的 新古典風運動。許多作曲家為了找尋創作上的靈感,反而是追朔到更早期的巴洛克大師們。

因為這樣,使一位像 Domenico Gallo的作曲家的音樂,得以重見天日。今天台灣,甚至國外有些介紹古典樂的網站還有書,還是會放入錯誤的資料,仍只寫是Pergolesi。只能希望 並期待,時間久了,真象是可以慢慢出來。不過同時,還是來好好欣賞Gallo這些三重奏鳴曲吧!

Gallo這些三重 奏鳴曲寫的時間大約是1750左右,剛好是巴洛克時期和古典時期的分水嶺上的時間。Gallo這些曲子,除了原有巴洛克音樂的風格,也融入新時期的元素。 十二首奏鳴曲,都是快-慢-快的三樂章形式,是新形式一種驗證。不過,十二首裡有九首的第一或第三樂章,採用賦格,是道道地地的巴洛克風。他的音樂遊走於 二時期間,不過有如歌般的旋律,配上節奏上的多變化,增添了一股優雅的清新感。

演奏這些奏鳴曲的Parnassi Musici ,是在德國的巴洛克室內樂團,專門灌錄義大利還有德國的一些不為人知的三重奏鳴曲。我第一張Parnassi的錄音為Albinoni的作品一三重奏鳴 曲,之後便對他們所錄的曲子一直很感興趣。他們的演奏風格很自在,不像一些樂團拉得那麼high,壓迫感那麼重。但是他們雖然放鬆不代表草率,也不像一些 英國的樂團感覺有點懶散到無趣。他們樂句處理得很分明,有方向性。如果某些部份需要更精彩,他們也是有刺激演出的本事。我手邊上他們的幾張CD我都非常喜 歡,日後有機會再來介紹。下面放上兩首Gallo的三重奏鳴曲。聽過Pucinella的人,會馬上辨認出第一首奏鳴曲的旋律。\


There's really not alot known about composer Domenico Gallo, not even his birth and death years.  It's likely that he was born around 1730 and died sometime in the mid 18th century as well.  He is said to be born in Venice and became a violinist, who wrote sacred music, but was also known for his violin sonatas, trio sonatas, and overtures.  His published two sets of works, one with two violins and continuo and another with two flutes and continuo.  Another set of 36 trio sonatas remain unpublished. 

What Gallo has been known to be famous for today is his works being incorrectly attributed to Giovanni Pergolesi, as many other composers have been done so too (van Wassenaer, just to name another one.)  His music, in turn, was studied and referenced heavily by Igor Stravinsky when he was asked to write a ballet Pulcinella, based on 18th century themes.  Stravinsky objected to the idea immediately, but after studying the scores, he completely changed his mind.  Gallo's music so captivated Stravinsky that he used 7 movements from 6 of the trio sonatas.  In Stravinsky's own words, "I looked, and I fell in love." Those familiar with the ballet will immediately notice the theme of the overture taken from the 1st movement of the first trio. 

So while Stravinsky had no idea that this music really belonged to Gallo, he certainly spoke highly of this music.  Gallo's trio sonatas were written around 1750, where Western music was in its transition to the classical era.  His music reflects this, keeping traditional Baroque forms but also using the newly evolving techniques.  His trio sonatas are all 3 movements with the fast - slow - fast structure, and many of the outer movements are fugues.  His melodic lines are clear, and his sense of rhythmic changes are abundant.  This is very fresh, lively, and carefree music played adequately by Parnassi Musici.  I have bought a few CDs played by Parnassi Musici, who always seem to find interesting yet forgotten Italian and German trio sonatas to record.  Their playing style is a bit more relaxed but their musical phrasing is very crisp and directional such that there are hardly any dull moments.  If the music calls for excitement, they also are up to the task to add a little spice.  A very good recording of somewhat neglected music.  (Not quite, since we owe it to Stravinsky that people are familiar with some of the melodies in another form.)





1 comment:

PeiPei said...

真的寫得很認真!!!
寫得很好喔
有空我會常來觀看

PeiPei

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