Wednesday, August 10, 2011

Musica Napoletana: Sonate a Quattro - Ragazzi - Avitrano (Accademia per Musica)

十八世紀初的拿坡里(Naples),是音樂風氣非常旺盛的城市。因為有Alessandro Scarlatti和Nicola Porpora(有關他的生平詳見之前這篇)等聲樂作曲家,所以拿坡里基本上是聲樂創作的大本營。純器樂的作品,反而是少數。重要的器樂作曲中心,則是在羅馬,威尼斯,以及波隆拿等地方。


這張CD收錄了兩位作曲家Angela Ragazzi (c1680–1750)以及Giuseppe Avitrano (1670–1756)的作品,是古樂團Accademia per Musica展開對拿坡里器樂曲一系列錄音中的第一張。如果說三重奏鳴曲(trio sonata)是在羅馬發展出來最重要的巴洛克室內樂形式,那四聲部奏鳴曲(sonate a quattro)則是拿坡里的特有產物。

雖然Avitrano大言不慚地誇口說這種編制是他開始的,但大一輩的作曲家Pietro Marchitelli和 Giancarlo Cailò其實早已開發過了。不過,幾乎可以肯定的是,Avitrano應該是第一位在拿坡里出版四聲部奏鳴曲的作曲家。這張CD選了三首他於1713年出版的作品三奏鳴曲。這些四聲部奏鳴曲,就是在三重奏鳴曲的雙小提琴和數低音裡,再加入一把小提琴,大部份採「慢-快-慢-快」的四樂章形式。第二樂章是給三小提琴的賦格,而第四樂章則是三拍式的舞曲樂章。Avitrano的音樂並沒有太大的創意,普遍停留在傳統義大利奏鳴曲的架構和風格底下,雖然沒有特別的突破,但無論如何還是甜美,有活力的作品。

Ragazzi的這些奏鳴曲,則更俱有變化與特色。先簡短地介紹一下他的生平:他年輕時是在S. Maria di Loreto音樂院接受音樂訓練,之後加入拿坡里宮廷樂團。當Habsburg王朝接管拿坡里王國的時候,未來的神聖羅馬帝國皇帝Charles六世(有名的Maria Theresa皇后的父親),登基成為西班牙還有拿坡里的國王(但被稱為Charles三世)。他短暫地統治西班牙和拿坡里時,邀請旗下的音樂家跟隨著他。Ragazzi,便到了巴塞隆納,然後到了維也納。1722年,他有回到故鄉拿坡里,不過1729年,他再度到了維也納,在這兒永久住了下來。

Ragazzi的作品一「四聲部奏鳴曲」,是在1736年羅馬出版的,可是實際動筆的時間,可能是他在1722–1729年回到拿坡里的那時候。他的作品一,其編制為第一主奏小提琴和合奏小提琴,第二小提琴,第三小提琴或中提琴,以及低音提琴和數字低音。雖說有十二首奏鳴曲,但實際上又以三首為一單位(1–3、4–6、7–9、10–12),第一首是傳統形式的奏鳴曲,給三支小提琴和數字低音,但第二和第三首性質比較像是協奏曲,主奏小提琴有獨奏及炫技的橋段。這張CD收錄了Ragazzi一半的奏鳴曲(第一到第三,及第十到第十二首),另一半在Accademia per Music此系列中的第二張。值得一提的是第十二首,有「田園風」(Pastorale)的標題,顧名思義和聖誕節多半有關。的確,整首就是以耶穌誕生為題材,有故事性的協奏曲,從天使向三位牧羊人報喜(Annunciation),至他們的旅程(Journey),並在馬槽時對耶穌的敬拜(Adoration),以及充滿歡喜的回程(Return),整首一氣呵成,結束時氣氛歡欣鼓舞,有別於一般聖誕協奏曲的靜謐收場。

Accademia per Musica是義大利的古樂團,但他們的領隊是旅居義大利二十幾年的德國小提琴家Christopher Timpe。他們的錄音著重在義大利中期到晚期巴洛克較冷門的曲目,並以演奏時散發出最大的生氣為宗旨,也儘量刻意避免被定位是哪個國藉的古樂詮釋法。不可否認,他們弓下得重但紮實,音符長度拉得較完整,在表現出活力的同時,也呈現出穩重感,不會令人覺得過度輕浮或狂野。音樂元素中的對比,Accademia per Musica也都有做出適當的修飾,使音樂緊湊而不懶散。

這張錄音裡,Accademia per Musica的演出水準相當高,是音樂家駕馭音樂的一個好例子。儘管Ragazzi的音樂較Avitrano有意思,但曲子長度過短,點子一現即逝。在有限的音符當中,Accademia per Musica已經盡力發揮出了最大的效益。拿坡里作曲家的四聲部奏鳴曲,就算排不上當時最優秀的作品,但也是別出新裁的一種創意。

18th Century Naples is known for the great vocal composers like Alessandro Scarlatti, Nicola Porpora, Leonardo Leo, to name a few.  Often neglected then, perhaps for good reason, are the instrumental works of the Neapolitan composers.  This recording by Accademia per Musica represents the first CD of a 3-disc series survey of Neapolitan instrumental chamber sonatas. 

In order to set them apart from the trio sonata, popularized by Corelli to an unprecedented degree in Rome, the Neapolitan composers are associated with the sonate a quattro, or simply speaking, the four-part sonata. The works recorded on this disc, by composers Angelo Ragazzi and Giuseppe Avitrano, belong to this category.  Avitrano boldy declared that he was the first person to compose works for this particular arrangement, but in fact a generation earlier, Pietro Marchitelli and Giancarlo have already composed for this combination. What is true is that he is probably the first Neapolitan composer to publish violin music in his home town. Avitrano's 4-part sonatas are basically an extension of the trio sonata with an additional violin. His sonatas generally do not break from the typical sonata da chiesa style. His sonatas are almost always in four movements, with a fugal second movement and a dance-like fourth movement. It is not the most exciting music but you can bet on it being pleasing to the ear. Of the 12 op.3 sonatas, 3 are recorded here.

Ragazzi is probably on a higher level than Avitrano. He was born in Naples, got his music training at one of the conservatories here, and went on to become a member of the court orchestra. When Naples was briefly under the Habsburg rule, he followed Charles III (known to Spain and Naples as Charles III but as Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI) first to Barcelona and then to Vienna. In 1722 he returned to Naples, but left again in 1729 to settle in Vienna for good.  His only published works are his Op.1 Sonate a Quattro, published in 1736 in Rome, of all places. His instrumentation is for solo violin, first ripieno violin, second violin, third violin or viola, bass continuo and obliggato double-bass. He explores the possible textures of this genre, where it can range from the typical chamber sonatas to a solo concerto style.

His Op.1 sonatas are divided in 4 groups of 3: 1–3, 4–6, 7–9, and 10–12. The first piece in each group is a more conventional sonata like those of Avitrano, where the 3rd voice is a violin. The second and third pieces are of the solo concerto style, where the 3rd voice is taken by the viola, and there are extended passages for the solo violin, evidence of the modern Venetian influence. Half of the sonatas are recorded on this disc (Nos. 1–3 and 10–12), and the rest were recorded in a subsequent volume, the 2nd disc of the series. Deserving mention is the last piece, the 12th sonata, titled "Pastorale," unmistakably another "Christmas concerto," but one which is told in the form of a story that spans the whole piece. There is the Annunciation, the Journey of the shepherds and the Adoration at the manor, and joyous Return. Unlike the concerti grossi modeled after Corelli which end with the serene pastorale, the last movement of the concerto is of delight and rapture.

Accademia per Musica is an Italian period ensemble led by German violinist Christopher Timpe, who has pretty much made Italy his home, having lived there for 20+ years. Timpe was apparently inspired by Reinhard Goebel to play the Baroque violin, one of the many accomplished musicians out there today. All of the Accademia per Musica recordings focus on lesser-known works by the Baroque Italian composers, including this Neapolitan series and other trio sonatas written before Corelli.

Accademia per Musica's playing is strong, with good solid bowing and generally playing the notes closer to their written note values. Their lively playing is coupled with a good sense of grounding, neither feeling too lightweight nor too raw. Dynamical contrasts and musical phrasing are done with good judgment, so there is sense of immediacy and flow to their playing. Most of these pieces are relatively short and not exactly first-rate, so this is a good example of the musicians lifting the music and not the other way around. Good disc into exploration of Neapolitan four-part sonata writing.








3 comments:

Mingus said...

Capriccio 這個系列我有三張,沒能收到這一張。繼續等特價。

最近最為震驚的是下列這個 boxset。A major blow to me, but the answer to your prayer?

http://www.mdt.co.uk/MDTSite/product//94111.htm

希望一切安好,遠方的朋友。

Deadlockcp said...

呵呵。Capriccio也出了一個3CD的Neapolitan套裝,是我開始收集這套之後才發現的~~~

Frescobaldi的這個我之前看到了,目前就期待中 :)

最近不錯,只是忙了點。希望您也一切都好。下次回台灣,一定再出來聚聚。

Biberfan said...

Sumptuous in a locatellian way

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