Monday, January 10, 2011

Pasquini: Sonate per gravicemblo (Roberto Loreggian)

Bernardo Pasquini (1637-1710) 是十七世紀中期重要的義大利作曲家,是早期的大師Frescobaldi和晚期的巨匠Domenico Scarlatti中間,義大利最重要的鍵盤作曲家。除了鍵盤音樂,他在聲樂作品上也有重要的貢獻,十七世紀中期也是羅馬知名度最高的聲樂作曲家,後來地位才被Alessandro Scarlatti取而代之。



Bernardo Pasquini (不同於另一位早期的作曲家Ercole Pasquini)出生於北義大利,在Lucca附近。他早期音樂教育可能來自就讀學校的牧師,也有可能是在Ferrara的叔父。在Ferrara,Pasquini繼續拜聲樂家Loreto Vittori還有Antonio Cesti為師。1650年,年僅13歲的Pasquini到了羅馬,便永遠待下來了,中間只有離開過義大利兩次。

在羅馬的時候,他仔細研讀了Frescobaldi還有Palestrina的作品,並一生一直深受二位的影響。據了解,有份Pasquini手抄的Palestrina樂譜,封面上Pasquini寫道:「任何人膽敢譽自己為音樂大師,卻沒品嘗過Palestrina舉世無雙的音樂之果的人,將永遠才短氣粗。」可見得他對這為前輩的推崇。而之於Frescobaldi,除了Pasquini手抄了一份他的Primo libro delle fantasie外,從他寫的鍵盤曲之中可清楚看見他延續早期義大利鍵盤的文化不遺餘力。

Pasquini在世時,以精湛的鍵盤技巧聞名歐洲。上述他離開義大利兩次,一次是到維也納,在皇帝Leopold一世面前表演。奧地利的宮廷音樂想辦法遊說他到奧地利來,但徒勞無功。第二次是到法國,在路易十四面前表演。在羅馬,他得到許多社會上有地位的人士的贊助。其中,如同Corelli,有退位的克里斯蒂娜瑞典女王(Christina Alexandra),主教Benedetto Pamphili,以及主教Pietro Ottoboni。不過最重要的,是Giambattista Borghese王子;Pasquini擔任了Giambattistsa宮廷的大鍵琴師以及音樂總監。

Pasquini和Corelli,不但分別為鍵盤和小提琴的大師,二人在羅馬音樂圈還經常一起演出,還為對方曲子的公演站台。在同業公會裡,他們在各自樂器領域也都享得「守護者」的名稱。這麼尊貴的頭銜,使得各地的音樂家都慕名前來拜師,有義大利的Zipoli,Gasparini等,還有德奧的Johann Krieger,以及Georg Muffat。小史卡拉第Domenico Scarlatti,雖然沒有直接的證據顯示他有直接和他學習過,但Pasquini的風格有影響到他是很清楚的。

大部份Pasquini所寫的曲子,生前並沒有被出版過,而是以手稿的方式被保存下來的。 大部份的曲子是舞曲和變奏曲。如同法國鍵盤作曲家將舞曲結合成為組曲,Pasquini是首位將義大利風舞曲歸類在一起的義大利鍵盤作曲家。而他和Corelli長期合作的關係,Pasquini的鍵盤組曲簡直就像Corelli的奏鳴曲的大鍵琴翻版。

當然,傳承Frescobaldi和其他早期義大利鍵盤作曲家,Pasquini也寫了幾首對位音樂以及多首觸技曲。這些算是Pasquini作品裡最傳統的音樂,不過Pasquini並沒有墨守成規,而是在這些舊有的形式上做調整,註入明顯的調性,舞曲節奏,然後逐漸有鮮明的旋律主導。這些前瞻性的小改變,讓原本冷酷無情的早期鍵盤音樂形式,頓時增加了親和力,為日後以旋律主導的音樂種下因子。

這張CD收錄的是Pasquini各式各樣的作品集,有觸技曲,變奏曲,還有Passagaglia等曲子。裡面最有名的兩個變奏曲,分別為Bergamasca以及La Folia弗利亞舞曲的變奏曲。CD上最長的曲子,是Ricercare con la fuga in piu modi,是Pasquini在對位音樂上的最高成就之一。

另外,認識義大利十九世紀末的作曲家Respighi(雷斯畢基),知道他有寫「羅馬之松」,「羅馬之泉」,還有「羅馬節日」所謂的「羅馬三步曲」。如果更深入聆聽他的音樂,知道Respighi還寫了一首管絃樂組曲叫「鳥」,模仿各種鳥叫聲。Respighi裡面用的旋律,都來自巴洛克時期前輩的音樂,其中Pasquini就佔了三首之多,包括開頭的Prelude,還有Cuckoo(布穀鳥)。這張CD上有收錄原版的Toccata con lo scherzo del cucco,最後結尾時左右手各有一段,一隻手的兩指在彈trill的時候,同首的另外三指需要彈另一個旋律,不只要求雙手的獨立,還要求手指獨立!

最後一首是只有數字低音譜線的28首奏鳴曲中的一首。簡單地說,Pasquini只將低音還有和聲標示出來,高聲部則要求表演者完全即興出來。這類型的曲子,前無古人,後無來者,史上只有Pasquini有寫過。CD上的版本,除了大鍵琴以外,還找來了大提琴一塊合奏。

這張CD上的大鍵琴家,是義大利音樂家Roberto Loreggian。他分別和Patrizia Marisaldi和其老師Ton Koopman學過琴,是我欣賞的荷蘭大鍵琴樂派的。(因為自己也屬同宗)。首先,他選擇用的大鍵琴是義大利的Giusti大鍵琴,是獨奏和伴奏兩相怡的樂器,沒有北邊的樂器音色那麼深沉,而是清脆響亮。Loreggian在這張整體的表現算是還不錯的,但有些曲子他對於樂句的修飾有點草率,對比不夠,所以曲子趨於平淡無味。在較輕快的舞曲變奏裡,Loreggian的表現最佳,展現出活力。儘管是這樣,Pasquini的音樂很自然從Loreggian的指間中流出來,中間沒有冷場。Pasquini的鍵盤音樂沒有Frescobaldi的早期鍵盤音樂生硬,又沒有法國鍵盤音樂裡跛腳般的附點節奏,甜美又流暢。他和好友Corelli所奠定的風格,正是晚期義大利巴洛克音樂之所以能征服歐洲的主因。

Bernardo Pasquini (1637-1710) was one of the most important mid-seventeenth century Italian keyboard composers, bridging the gap between the two greats: early Frescobaldi and late Domenico Scarlatti.  Besides being recognized for his keyboard talents, he was also a noted vocal composer, arguably the most popular composer in mid 17th century Rome, only later to be replaced by another great, Alessandro Scarlatti.

Born near Lucca, Pasquini's early music training was supposedly given by his uncle in Ferrara, where he also studied with prominent vocalists Loreto Vittori and Antonio Cesti.  In 1650, Pasquini went to Rome, where he would remain there for the rest of his life, only making to trips outside of Italy, once to perform for Emperor Leopold I of the Holy Roman Empire and once for Louis XIV of France.  In Rome, he would immerse himself with both Frescobaldi and Palestrini's music, both which had a profound and lasting effect on his own compositions.

A colleague of Corelli, not only did they both obtain the title of "guardian" of their own respective instruments in the musicians' guild in Rome, they even performed together on many occasions.  Also interesting to note, that also had many of the same patrons, the most influential people in Rome at the time, including  Christina Alexandra, Cardinal Benedetto Pamphili, and Cardinal Pietro Pamphili.  Ultimately, he served as the harpsichordist and musical director of Prince Giambattista Borghese.

His reputation as a keyboard virtuoso apparently attracted many musicians near and abroad to study with him.  These include fellow Italians Gasparini, Ziplo, Casini, just to name a few, and other German-speaking musicians, like Johann Krieger and Georg Muffat.  It is speculated whether or not Domenico Scarlatti studied him, but Pasquini's influence is clear.

Most of Pasquini's keyboard compositions have been passed down through manuscript form, since he rarely published any of his pieces.  The majority of these pieces are single dances, suites, and variations.  Like Corelli, who organized his sonatas with dance movements in his sonatas, Pasquini did the same for his keyboard suites.  It would not surprise me that they both drew alot of inspiration from each other.  That being said, Pasquini is certainly the first known composer to establish the Italian keyboard suite.

Keeping the heritage of early Italian keyboard music, Pasquini also wrote 35 toccatas and other polyphonic music.  However, Pasquini does not strictly adhere to the old style of writing.  Instead, he slowly blends in homophony and chordal writing, dance rhythms, and tonality.  This slight modification has breathed new life on the earlier austere forms.

The music on this disc includes an assortment of Pasquini's keyboard music, ranging from his conservative counterpoint music (the Ricercare con la fuga in piu modi, a monumental achievement),  free flowing toccatas, and dance variations (Bergamasca and La Folia).  Those who are very familiar with Respighi's orchestral music (by familiar, I mean past the usual "Rome Trilogy" or "Ancient Airs and Dances") will notice the Cuckoo theme in Pasquini's Toccata con lo scherzo del cucco, where Respighi borrowed it from.  The toccata ends with the left and right hand execute continuous trills, while simultaneously playing the cuckoo theme on the remaining three fingers.  Surely this requires some independent control of each individual finger!

The most peculiar piece must be the last sonata, written as part of a set of 28 sonatas with only the figured bass line.  Half of these are written for two instruments, preferrably the harpsichord.  The piece chosen here is for only one solo instrument.  It is argued that these pieces were probably used for teaching purposes, but they stand as the only existing compositions like these in music history.  To add sound texture, a cello is heard playing along with the harpsichord in this recording.

Harpsichordist Roberto Loreggian studied harpsichord with Patrizia Marisaldi (who studied with Ton Koopman) and then directly with Koopman himself.  The Giusti harpsichord used here has a good crisp tone, not overpowering like the Northern harpsichords, ideal to what the Italians would have preferred.  Loreggian's playing is very solid for the most part, although for some of the pieces he can be a little sloppy on his phrasing, making the music sound a tad bland and uninteresting.  That's a pity, because the last thing you want is a toccata or Pasagaglia sound like a run-on sentence.  However, Loreggian is at his best at the pieces with the more animated dance pieces, where the shaping of the musical line is great.

Either way, for those who have not listened to Pasquini's music before, this is a treat.  Pasquini's music rounded up the edges that early Italian keyboard music exhibited, and it doesn't have the jerky dotted rhythms that the French keyboardists had, which can really be an acquired taste even to the most informed listeners.  Instead, Pasquini's music is smoothly free-flowing and beautifully melodic, a music idiom and Corelli and he helped shaped into the late Italian Baroque style that would conquer Europe, even the most resilient French.
















11 comments:

Mingus said...

看了你的文,聽了這些 samples,越發對此時期的鍵盤樂有所期待了。

你說的缺點,在他彈的 Frescobaldi 也有此傾向,不過,比起更花俏、或更鬆軟圓滑的彈法,個人覺得Loreggian 已算可以放心享用,不會讓人直想按stop鍵。

剛好昨天才訂了這張:
VIVALDI:Concerti con Organo Obligato
Roberto Lorregian (Organ)
L'arte Del'arco
Federico Guglielmo

GGs Adventure said...

很奇怪你這篇沒有顯示在我的partial reader上耶! 你用別的方式post的嗎?

Deadlockcp said...

Mingus:

的確。Loreggian的若干「冷門」獨奏鍵盤錄音,我其實都還算蠻喜歡的。他的Frescobaldi,我其實相當期待。目前只是要等Brilliant全部出完之後出套裝版。(當初買Belder的Scarlatti時就是一個個volume買,結果後來出了套裝版..... 佔了那麼多空間,真是令人討厭~~ )

我手邊有Vartolo的Frescobaldi,非常非常不喜歡。In fact,不欣賞的程度讓我一度對Frescobaldi的音樂失去興趣。

你說的那一張CD,我有看到。我手邊有另一張曲目相同的CD,外加一首RV335的協奏曲,是Jed Wentz和他的Musica ad Rhenum在Vanguard出的,後來也有在Brilliant Classics上重發行。

GG:

我之前發文日期可能弄錯了,有修正。妳的reader可能顯示了當初不正確的日期。經修正後,可能就沒有在妳的reader再出現了。

GGs Adventure said...

日期還可以修正啊! 我都不知道說...

最近還聽了蕭斯塔高維奇的賦格,我真的覺得此人雖才華洋溢,但性情扭曲. 搞不好有精神分裂症 :P 版上喜歡他的人不要罵我罵太凶啊 :P

Deadlockcp said...

當然嚕~~ 到Post Options裡,可以選擇發文日期。偷懶時,將先寫好的文章放上去,就是這樣改的。

妳是指Shostakovich那幾首媲美巴哈而寫的那24首Prelude + Fugues 嗎?我對作曲家的精神狀態或私德(e.g. Schubert)沒有很在乎,只要寫出好的音樂就好 ~~ 我最近很久沒有回到Shostakovich了~~ 最近聽音樂不想接受那種刺激,可能是開始老了,也可能只是目前的一個phase。

Mingus said...

可以瞭解為何你想等全集,全一套也不會丟三落四。

對於 Frescobaldi 這套全集,我一來迫不及待,二來怕之後出了全集之後,解說就大縮水。

對我而言,此類早期音樂的優秀解說,對於瞭解曲子背景、與同代音樂關係、演奏手法樣式等種種,實在非常重要,不可割捨。

價錢方面,Brilliant 已是低價版,此系列也不可能出太大一套,不至有太大的價格落差。

Deadlockcp said...

嗯,你說的是一個重點。常常Box Set的解說是非常minimum的。尤其是這些曲子不是大眾到隨便上網都可以翻到資料時。

不過,Brilliant Classics的解說,有時候也令人失望,等同沒有。我早期買Brilliant Classics的CD時,還真的是沒有解說,完全是超低價版的精神呀。

再者,已經有一套幾乎完整的Frescobaldi的作品集,解說資料肯定比Brilliant的詳細,所以booklet已經不是問題了。

不過話說,Brilliant的Scarlatti那一套分批出的時候,裡面解說也是啥都沒,連每首奏鳴曲都沒介紹,所以買了套裝還省事點。幸好Scott Ross大師那一套有每一首(555首!!)每一首的簡短介紹,是不可多得的資料。

Mingus said...

Scott Ross 那一套,雖然相當有潛力,因為價格關係,我遲遲下不了手啊。聽來裡面資料構成另一大誘因。

可否問一下,你另外一套「幾乎完整的Frescobaldi的作品集」,是哪個廠、何時發的?我有興趣。

Scarlatti Belder 版我有兩三集,早期Brilliant Classics 的確解說乏善可陳。不過,有一半是出在與他廠買版權的片子。

現在的Brilliant Classics 自行製作盤(尤其 2006 之後)已非吳下之蒙,英文解說少說都有五頁左右,還用銅版紙精印(大廠大部分也作不到),也有彩色圖片。

最近的 Frescobaldi、Fiorenza/Mele、Platti、Rota 都是這個水準,Bosgraaf 那張 Handel Recorder Sonatas 更讚,英文共有10頁左右,考據也講究,我非常 impressed。

Deadlockcp said...

Tactus 有出 Frescobaldi大部份的音樂。鍵盤作品最近出了一個套裝

http://www.amazon.com/Complete-Published-Works-Keyaboard-Frescobaldi/dp/B0041IH4ME/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=music&qid=1294902017&sr=1-1

不過,我不大喜歡Vartolo彈的Frescobaldi,偏偏他是裡面錄最多的。youtube這邊有一首他彈其中一首toccata。您可以自行做判斷。

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RP0xwIiKZnI

跟Pierre Hantai的一比,差異還不小~~~ (同一首3:38開始):

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aPQfvQOXnQI&playnext=1&list=PL0E0FA1F6927EA3D8&index=41

嗯,的確,Brilliant Classics的冊子是真的有在改善當中,所以已經不像之前那麼嚴荷了。要要求他們像CPO或是Hyperion的那麼完善,是不可能的。

我還發現,Brilliant很愛重發行Tactus的音樂。這樣讓我有時擔心,會買了原價的CD,結果被推出了低價的Brilliant版。比較讓我意外的其實是MAK的Veracini,居然Brilliant會拿到發行的版權。

GGs Adventure said...

555首!! 太驚人了! 我可能沒辦法每首都聽完還記得啊@@

Deadlockcp said...

Ross大師應該是一張張CD在出的時候,邊錄邊寫的介紹吧。

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