Saturday, October 30, 2010

Telemann: String Concertos II - Sinfonia Spirituosa (Musica Antiqua Köln / Reinhard Goebel)

直接在這兒開宗名義:如果今天發生了天災,只能從手邊的CD裡挑選出幾張跟著逃難,那這張會是其中之一。在我生日的這一天,特別為它寫那麼長的篇幅,就可知道我對這一張CD的厚愛。

我對巴洛克音樂的喜愛,從國小接觸古典樂就開始了。對它的熱愛,是大學大量買CD時。對它的狂愛,則是上研究所,並親自彈大鍵琴之後。 起初我對詮釋方式並沒有太講究,不過慢慢偏向用古樂器的演奏。但是近幾年,我的口味變得越來越重,越來越專一,許多以前覺得還不錯的錄音,今天已經漸漸不大能接受了。

其中的一個起源,該拜(怪)美國網友biberfan所賜。他是有一次我在網路上搜尋時,無意見看到他的網站;除了也是個古典迷,而且他大學本身是念音樂的,他的樂評網誌裡,詳細且專業,雖然主觀意見強,口氣雖狂妄但幽默。我和他立刻搭起了線,至今仍然偶爾會連絡。

當時在聊不同的古樂團時,他說他的心目中的第一樂團是科隆古樂團(Musica Antiqua Köln)(以下都用MAK簡稱)。科隆古樂團我自然是聽過的,但他們的錄音我那時並沒有。最主要的原因是我買CD以單價來算,我是非常省的。我在台灣買古典樂CD的時候,幾乎沒有買過高價位的CD。在美國的時候,也是找便宜的網路商店,看到好的deal才下手的,所以手邊許多看似高價位的CD,都是以低價中價買的。偏偏MAK的錄音都是高價位,而且幾乎都不降價的。在他的強力遊說之下,我忍痛買了一些他們的錄音,包括巴哈的布蘭登堡協奏曲,管絃樂組曲,以及較冷門的,如Heinichen的Dresden Concerti。一聽之下,心頭為之一震。聽完他們的錄音之後,剩下九成的錄音立刻黯然失色。我從此對巴洛克音樂表演的看法,從此改觀了…

在我也成為MAK的死忠支持者後,這張是我有一年研究所寒假回台灣時買的。這張是他們2002年發行的錄音,也是他們樂團2007年解散前的最後幾張錄音之一。當初樂團解散時我也嚇了一跳,不過後來得知是因為他們的創辦人同是指揮Reinhard Goebel因為手受傷,決定不再表演了。Reinhard Goebel是位鬼才,在小提琴技巧上的高超是大家所公認的。但是,可能是因為過度使用的原故,使得他左手開始殘疾。於是,他決定將小提琴反過來拉,用左手拉弓,用右手把!!!這實在是一件極為了不起的毅力和成就,令人不得不佩服。

這張CD收錄的音樂都是Telemann所寫的。MAK好像對Telemann有獨愛,之前就發行了許多Telemann的錄音,其中他的「餐桌音樂」(Tafelmusk),更是古樂錄音裡經典中的經典。這是他們在2000發行過一張Telemann的協奏曲的系列裡的第二張。(那一張我也是非常非常喜愛)。這張CD,有MAK一貫的特性:充沛無比的能量,乾淨且精準的琴音,以及完美的一致性。在這2002的錄音效果更是少了他們有些80年代錄音上的乾燥感,使聲音更是飽滿。

MAK成立於1973年,而他們詮釋巴洛克音樂的音樂,在古樂音樂家裡一直是擔任領導著的地位。他們許多表演的風格,雖然當時出來的時候是非常前衛的,但至今已是各古樂團所用的標準了,可見他們的引影力之深。這些重要的風格為:快節奏,音樂大小聲變化明顯,拍子強弱分明,以及斷句清楚有方向性。同一首曲子,別人演奏起來無精打采,他們卻生龍活虎。別人的版本可以當安眠曲,他們的版本,卻得當晨間起床用的曲子。別人表演,常流於背景音樂,而MAK的表演,卻時時刻刻都會吸引你的注意。MAK不怕挑戰極限,使得英國由Trevor Pinnock,Christopher Hogwood,和Simon Standage等所領軍的樂團,雖有自己的特色,但相形下失色,竟成為保守的演出。

這張CD上有有兩首協奏曲,一首是編號TWV 54:A1的四小提琴協奏曲,以及TWV 40:201的四小提琴獨奏協奏曲 (僅四把小提琴,無樂團伴奏),是之前買過Simon Standage的Collegium 90的錄音裡,有一模一樣的曲子。一比之下,MAK的版本熱情如火,而Collegium 90則是鋒芒內斂。或許有人些不適應那麼重口味的拉法,但有些其他時期的古典樂的表演,以能使人情緒激動,情奔放而為人稱道,那為什麼在詮釋巴洛克的音樂的時候不能這樣呢?至少,MAK證明起碼這一點是可以做到的,至於你能不能接受這樣的表演方式,是個人的欣賞偏好和選擇。我的話,則是徹底被他們說服 :)

泰雷曼(Telemann)是史上最量產,又是最懂得取悅大眾的作曲家,所以他寫的曲子,不會有難聽或是有距離感的。他寫的曲子超多,各種奇怪的樂器組合都有,也難怪許多練古樂的人都會開玩笑地說:「只要不知道能練啥,就去找Telemann,反正他一定有為這樂器組合寫的曲子。」這張CD錄了三首為四把獨奏小提琴寫的協奏曲,和Boismortier為五支長笛寫的協奏曲有異曲同工之妙。據說,這些協奏曲,有訓練當時宮廷的小提琴手的功能,在合奏的情形外,還可增進他們獨奏的能力。另外,還有一首小提琴協奏曲,有「蟾蜍」的標題,但Telemann除了利用小提琴來製造出類似蟾蜍叫聲的幽默效果之外,其他的小提琴獨奏部份是有一定的難度。在大家以為Telemann沒有把戲再變的時候,他總是能再給人一些奇妙的驚喜的。

由於youtube好像變聰明了,有自動篩選掉那些大唱片公司的音樂的本領,使我自己上傳的一直被擋掉。因此,下面貼上的是youtube上別人放上去的影片。 

In light of my birthday, I have decided to talk about a recording that has come to shape and influence my way of listening to Baroque music.  I have always been attracted to Baroque music since starting piano lessons at a young age.  I started seriously collecting Baroque music recordings once I got to college, and fell madly in love with it even more when I started harpsichord lessons in graduate school.

The sole reason why I was a slow-starter to being a follower of Musica Antiqua Köln (MAK) is that I am a cheap person when it comes to CD shopping.  Of my fairly substantial classical music collection that I own, most of the CDs are bought a budget price or at the mid-range level.  I would seek out and wait for good deals to come out to make a large purchase.  Ironically, I would end up spending more money because of the various box sets and deals, but in terms of price per CD, I knew I was spending wisely ....  :)

Anyways, one day while browsing online, I found biberfan's webpage,  and we have been in correspondence on-and-off throughout the years.  I must say that I was thrilled and happy to meet someone as enthusiastic into Baroque music recordings as I was, and I have always been very impressed at his detailed and informative music reviews.  On discussing various period instrument ensembles, he would firmly state that MAK was the greatest Baroque music ensemble to walk the face of the Earth, or something along the lines of that....     Under his countless mentioning of how great the group was, I just had to give it a try, right?

Lo and behold, listening to MAK play Bach and Telemann was a complete revelation to me.   Baroque music would never sound the same to me anymore, now would I listen to it with the same expectations.  Here was crisp and precise playing, a wide range of dynamical changes, abundance of articulations, meticulous phrasing, and above all, sheer energy that would make you jump off your seat.  The numerous recordings that I had before instantly sounded bland and paled in comparison.  The same piece that sounded like a serenade played by other groups would be music you would wake up to in the morning through the hands of MAK.  Of course, MAK's gung-ho approach to Baroque music would have many detractors as much as devout followers, but that's the case with anyone who wishes to push the current limits of everything.  If other classical music pieces from different periods are able to stir up emotions and commended for it, why isn't Baroque music allowed to do so?  In the least, MAK has shown the world that it can be done, and their style of playing has been embraced by many period instrumental groups since then.  Whether or not you are up to this style of interpretation is of course, your freedom of choice.  But at least you have a few more options to choose from.

This CD titled Sinfonia Spirituosa is one of the last recordings that MAK made before it disbanded in 2007.  Upon hearing the news, I was at shock.  However, I was also fortunate enough to attend their farewell concert tour in Berkeley, and I have to say that it was the best Baroque concert I have ever attended.  The Concerto Köln concert comes as a close second. 

This CD has an all-Telemann program, a composer they have recorded many times in the past, with their Tafelmusik recording as one of the crowning achievements.  This 2002 recording has MAK's similar approach and style of playing, despite numerous member changes, but with a superb sound engineering.  Some of the 80s recordings of MAK suffer from a dryer acoustic, a detail which can make the listening less enjoyable to some.  This is the 2nd CD in the series devoted to Telemann's string concertos, the previous released in 2000, one that I also enjoy immensely.  It was a CD that I bought when I returned to Taiwan during one of the winter breaks, and it was a full-price CD I paid gladly.

This recording has concertos for the interesting combination of instruments.  Included are three concertos for 4 solo violins without string accompaniment or bass continuo and another concerto for 4 violins that does have strings and bass continuo.  Of one of the other eccentric pieces is a violin concerto titled "Die Relinge," of "the toad."  In addition to just mimicking the croaking of the frog on the violin, something which reminds me of Biber's Sonata Representiva, the rest of the concerto is actually well thought out and not just a musical joke.  Telemann was one of the most prolific composers to ever live, and he was smart in writing music that people liked.   This means that none of this music is ever distant, like how some Bach can sometimes sound.  This is very pleasant music, with a few of Telemann's surprises up his sleeves, with MAK providing the spice for the extra kick and finishing touches.

In short, this is one of my desert island CDs, clear and simple as that.

I have tried to upload some of their clips on youtube, but youtube has become intelligent enough to be able to block my videos.  Luckily and naturally, there are enough MAK followers on youtube, which I will just put their videos at the end of my entry.  Enjoy that MAK playing!  








17 comments:

GGs Adventure said...

生日快樂!

小提家可以換手彈,鋼琴家大概只剩下:左手鋼琴協奏品之類. 倒是沒聽過有只給右手彈(左手廢掉的話)的.

講到手廢掉,鋼琴家Alexander Scriabin也是超練過度導致右手殘疾.不知道是否這樣他才寫有給左手的鋼琴作品?

Deadlockcp said...

嗯,好像是真的。

http://www.pianosociety.com/cms/index.php?section=634

Goebel後來有再短暫調整回來,但後來左手完全殘廢了,所以就完全放棄表演了。可以想像對於他來說,這是多大的打擊。

Mingus said...

(稍稍遲到的)生日快樂!

可惜這張Telemann我遲遲沒收到,只收到前面一點的string concerti 那張。

無論是現場或錄音,個人認為 MAK 真的非常強,雖並非所有曲目都完美。他們的法國曲目,如 Rebel 或Charpentier 我就覺得不夠大膽奔放、華麗輝煌,前者比不上新錄音(如HM廠的Akademie für Alte Musik Berlin或是Capriccio廠的 L'Orfeo Barockorchester),後者比不上William Christie或Hervé Niquet。

你覺得他們那套Brandenburg concerti 是否可經得起「時代的考驗」,我沒買...

我也是Telemann的大粉絲,在奇思異想、與曲式的豐富變化(包括聖樂)上,我都覺得勝過J.S. Bach 一籌。CPE Bach 的多感風格之濫觴,其實就在他的godfather Telemann 身上。

Deadlockcp said...

MAK 的 Brandenburg 是絕對可以經得起時代的考驗的錄音。今天再聽,他們的詮釋還是很前衛,也就是有諸多的爭議性,而且也是之後的樂團做不到的。(應該是說,不願意去做) 譬如說,他們的第三號最後一樂章,可能是有史以來,操得最快的版本。前無古人,後無來者。

Mingus said...

「操得最快」,也是造成較習慣傳統樣式 Bach 的台灣這邊,對MAK的偏見之原因。

不知道 MAK 那套Bach有否灌錄管弦組曲,其中第三號的Air,不知是哪種方式。

有些朋友習慣慢到不行的「卡農」,當他們聽到 Manze 版時,有的十分驚異,有的則噗呲笑了出來(覺得是在開玩笑)。

BTW, 從你這連到 GGs Adventure的網誌,直言快語,很有意思。

Deadlockcp said...

布蘭登堡第三號,在youtube上有:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=20tau1ngCtY

第三樂章從5:08左右開始

MAK有錄Bach的管絃樂組曲,那個錄音我也有。Air裡面的小提琴主旋律部份,當然呈MAK的風格,是很有個性的。而且,小提琴一定是Goebel本人拉的。我覺得youtube開始會抓這些大廠牌的大眾曲目的錄音。要是我親自上傳,應該是也是會被擋下來的。

卡農,你說的Manze那個版本,如果是HM上和Stan Ritchie,John Holloway的那個錄音,我手上也有,確實是很快。我之前Review的London Baroque的版本,也只比他們慢2-3秒。Jordi Savall的版,則是更快。當初給習慣比較傳統的表演方式的朋友,甚至音樂系的朋友,他們也是表現出一種不可思議,或是無法想像的臉。

Ergaster said...

遲到兩天的祝福,
生日快樂! :)

Mingus said...

發現語意可能被誤讀,希望沒讓你誤會,想問Brandenburg 錄音是因為自己沒買,「也沒聽過」,想知道你的想法作為參考。

感謝你的youtube連結,我非常喜歡這個 MAK 演出。厲害的是,要是告訴我是「最新發行」的錄音,我絲毫不會懷疑。Wow!

沒錯,卡農就是Andrew Manze 這群人的版,常用它來「嚇人」,一點都偶像劇不起來。

Deadlockcp said...

希望沒有誤會。我猜想你應該沒聽過,所以翻了youtube上的錄音,比我用再多話來形容還要更為簡單直接 :) Pretty amazing right? 1987年的錄音~~~

呵呵,那種canon,可以完全不用考慮當結婚進行音樂了。

GGs Adventure said...

本來應該留在其他篇的,不過留在這裏方便回頭來看

最近入手的CD都有Scarlatti的作品. 是以前沒接觸(或是有也不當回事). 有什麼欣賞時的撇步可分享嗎?

Deadlockcp said...

Scarlatti的奏鳴曲,不能因為是採取早期的簡單AB形式而就當作是膚淺之作。奏鳴曲一詞的發展,本來就是在改變,所以如果單說古典時期的奏鳴曲是比較有深度,是有失公道。

他的奏鳴曲,如光看譜,可能會感覺很straight forward,但其實中間隱藏了不少玄機。Scarlatti在西班牙,葡萄牙的宮廷服務,自己深受當時Iberian半島民謠的影響,和歐洲其他國家風格不大一樣。

也因此這樣,在Scarlatti的音樂,會出現一些很特別的和絃,或是樂句轉折的時候,會出現一些沒有料到的音符。

技巧上,妳是學過鋼琴的,可以感覺得出來有些地方並不容易。手交叉,大跳躍,repeated notes等。

樂器上,妳想必會偏坦鋼琴 :) 不過客觀說一點,Scarlatti受西班牙音樂的影響,有些奏鳴曲有那種彈奏吉他的效果。鋼琴上表演,因為受音色的限制,比較沒有辦法傳達那種感覺。大鍵琴上,除了這種感覺比好一些,有時大和絃製造出來的敲擊感也比較重。

給妳聽K 141的兩個版本:

Argerich大師: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PcsRl_LIJHA

大鍵琴大師Pierre Hantai: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLpBdHivTcc

二者給人的感覺相當不同。因此,應該也要抱著不大相同的心情來欣賞來得好 :)

GGs Adventure said...

多謝!

換個問題
上次講到box set, 你說你有杜普雷的.那你有大衛歐伊斯特拉夫的EMI錄音全集嗎? 推薦嗎?

GGs Adventure said...

Piccinini的魯特琴,之前有從圖書館借回來聽說. 不過沒你的解說,可能只是外行聽熱鬧.

今天聽了你上面的兩個連結,阿格麗希這個白髮魔女還是真的夠嗆啊! (被你說中啦,偶的確比較喜歡鋼琴版 :P)

Deadlockcp said...

Oistrakh的那套我沒有,是可以考慮收藏的 :) 妳要當先鋒敗家部隊嗎? :P 

Piccinini都會借到,還真神奇。怎麼選他呢 ? 真的是又早又冷門的作曲家。那麼早期的風格,不知道妳習不習慣? 不過,至少也聽得出來和晚期的那些大師們 「差很大」~~~

John Hendron said...

Thanks for the link! Reading this inspired turning on the Hifi to my favorite MAK recording, their 1986 rendition of the Brandenburg Concerti. Good stuff in there.

There's a lesser-known recording by MAK of Telemann string concerti that I purchased on the DG label. It came out on a budget release, entitled "Concertos" by Telemann, and was recorded in the late 1970s I believe.

On it, is featured a Concerto in D a 4, a concerto on this recording you review. I thought it was an interesting thing to re-record these, and I'm not satisfied that the new recordings are in any way better. The new recording has a much better recorded sound (less background "air). One of the violinists sounds more confident, at least, in the older recording. But going back and forth is telling - they must be using near the same instruments because the instrumental color is almost spot-on the same.

Another gem recording from MAK's first iteration (with Hajo Baß, Wilbert Hazelet, and Jaap ter Linden) is their Pachelbel/Handel/Vivaldi album. The 2 gems are the Vivaldi La Folia trio sonata and the BWV 1070 (Bach's dubious, but nonetheless awesome 5th orchestral suite). Such tight string playing and expressive playing.

Two other albums worth special mention are their Tafelmusik by Telemann which you rightly cite as a crown jewel. I remember still the place where I picked that up, and it was $60. I remember a friend asking "4 CDs? How much Telemann do you need?" Also I think Goebel's finest achievement was his solo work on Biber's Mystery Sonatas by Biber.

I also saw the farewell concert - the LA edition at Disney Hall. I was sad that Goebel was not there. Luckily for us, as you mention, MAK not only inspired listeners but also performers.

- biberfan

Deadlockcp said...

Ah yes, I have that album as well, the reissue of the 1979 recording titles "Chamber Concertos." Actually, two concertos for 4 solo violins are on it, the other one in C is also on it.

I'm also aware of the Telemann wind concertos and Wassermusik album they recorded, which I do plan to purchase at some point.

It's funny that you mention Goebel's Mystery Sonatas, as there's this on-going thread on a friend's blog about this same recording. It IS his finest achievement, but sadly, his hand injury started after his completion of this recording.

Archiv is reissuing some of MAK's old recordings. I look forward to rounding them up at some point :) Speaking of, I just put in an order for their "La Parnasse Francais" album. Can't get enough of Marais's "La Sonnerie de Sainte-Genevieve du Mont de Paris"

GGs Adventure said...

因為突然想聽魯特琴,當時沒有太多選擇,就借到它了

也算是想開創新聽域的嘗試吧!

其實大衛歐伊斯特拉夫的好幾張我都有,買set的話就是衝著便宜,開發新聽域,因為那裡面有好幾首是我沒有的.

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